The Heechee do not appear until book three in the series, in which the reason for their absence is explained; some , years earlier, the Heechee were active in exploring the galaxy, including an Australopithecine -inhabited Earth where a sampling of the creatures were extracted and left to propagate to modern time on a Heechee station.
The Heechee found out that there was a race of pure energy called simply The Foe or alternatively called either The Assassins or The Kugel wiping out civilizations on any planet where they emerged; the inherently cautious Heechee retreated to the interior of the black hole in the Galactic Core hoping to avoid being destroyed. Due to time dilation , only a few hundred years have passed for the Heechee in the interior of the black hole since they left the normal universe. While in hiding, Heechee scout ships are periodically sent outside the black hole to check on developments through the universe in general and the emerging Earth in particular.
When the latest Heechee crew exits the black hole, they are shocked to discover that humans are flying Heechee spaceships to all parts of the galaxy—and one of those places happens to be the Kugelblitz a black hole made of energy and not matter , where The Foe is concentrated; the Heechee expected humans to discover the ships, but the cautious race believed Earth people would study and unlock the ships' secrets over a period of hundreds of years—and not simply take the equipment out for random rides in the dangerous galaxy.
When the Heechee finally arrive in force, it is decided that the human intrusion cannot be reversed and The Foe must be confronted. The Heechee have collected evidence that The Foe have been adding matter into the universe; the Foe intend to tilt the balance and allow the Big Bang to be reversed and the universe to collapse into a Big Crunch billions of years into the future. The Foe intend that once the universe rebounds into a second big bang, it will do so in the form of pure energy, removing the atomic matter that The Foe regard as so much clutter.
The Heechee's appearance is described as smaller than humans, bow-legged with skeletal frames, and possessed of dark, plastic-smooth skin with patches and curlicues of bright gold and scarlet; each Heechee carries a microwave emitter in a storage pod between his or her legs. The pod is a trapezohedron shaped device and is also used for carrying equipment; the pods also explain why the seats on the ship have V-shaped indentations to accommodate the devices. The Heechee's home planet evolved near a naturally occurring microwave source, making the background radiation a necessary requirement for an ambient environment; the extended absence of the radiation will cause illness and death.
Heechee relationships do not generally feature couple cohabitation for lengthy periods as with human marriages. A burrowing species, they tend to display more solitary conduct than humans. A Heechee bed is a cocoon, stuffed with soft bits of fabric. Heechees only breed when a female is in season. Heechee are omnivorous and use a fibrous plant to clean their teeth.
There are two Heechee languages: the language of Do and the language of Feel, with communications with humans restricted to the former. Unlike humans, the Heechee did not develop artificial intelligence. Instead, they relied upon technology to pour the brains of departed Heechee into data storage, giving them a limited immortality; these "stored minds" operate at remarkably faster speeds than "meat" brains. Those stored operate in their own social strata often separate from their organic counterparts. After centuries of existence, the various Heechee consciousnesses join the "massed minds", essentially dying while memories are distributed among other machine stored intelligences.
In addition to the Food Factory, the Heechee created a number of devices that the Earth people discovered and used, including:. Big Bang The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
The model describes how the universe expanded from a high-density and high-temperature state, offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure and Hubble's law. If the observed conditions are extrapolated backwards in time using the known laws of physics , the prediction is that just before a period of high density there was a singularity, associated with the Big Bang.
Physicists are undecided whether this means the universe began from a singularity, or that current knowledge is insufficient to describe the universe at that time.
Detailed measurements of the expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang at around After its initial expansion, the universe cooled sufficiently to allow the formation of subatomic particles, simple atoms. Giant clouds of these primordial elements coalesced through gravity forming early stars and galaxies, the descendants of which are visible today.
Astronomers observe the gravitational effects of dark matter surrounding galaxies. Though most of the mass in the universe seems to be in the form of dark matter, Big Bang theory and various observations seem to indicate that it is not made out of conventional baryonic matter but it is unclear what it is made out of. In , from analysis of galactic redshifts, Edwin Hubble concluded that galaxies are drifting apart. In , the cosmic microwave background radiation was discovered, crucial evidence in favor of the Big Bang model, since that theory predicted the existence of background radiation throughout the universe before it was discovered.
More measurements of the redshifts of supernovae indicate that the expansion of the universe is accelerating , an observation attributed to dark energy's existence. The known physical laws of nature can be used to calculate the characteristics of the universe in detail back in time to an initial state of extreme density and temperature. What will be known as the "Big Bang theory" of the origin of the universe , he called his "hypothesis of the primeval atom" or the " Cosmic Egg ".
American astronomer Edwin Hubble observed that the distances to faraway galaxies were correlated with their redshifts; this was interpreted to mean that all distant galaxies and clusters are receding away from our vantage point with an apparent velocity proportional to their distance: that is, the farther they are, the faster they move away from us, regardless of direction. Assuming the Copernican principle , the only remaining interpretation is that all observable regions of the universe are receding from all others.
Since we know that the distance between galaxies increases today, it must mean that in the past galaxies were closer together; the continuous expansion of the universe implies that the universe was denser and hotter in the past. Large particle accelerators can replicate the conditions that prevailed after the early moments of the universe, resulting in confirmation and refinement of the details of the Big Bang model. However, these accelerators can only probe so far into high energy regimes. The state of the universe in the earliest instants of the Big Bang expansion is still poorly understood and an area of open investigation and speculation; the first subatomic particles to be formed included protons and electrons.
Though simple atomic nuclei formed within the first three minutes after the Big Bang, thousands of years passed before the first electrically neutral atoms formed; the majority of atoms produced by the Big Bang were hydrogen , along with helium and traces of lithium.
Giant clouds of these primordial elements coalesced through gravity to form stars and galaxies, the heavier elements were synthesized either within stars or during supernovae; the Big Bang theory offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena. Galaxy Science Fiction Galaxy Science Fiction was an American digest-size science fiction magazine, published from to It was founded by a French-Italian company, World Editions, looking to break into the American market.
World Editions hired as editor H. Gold , who made Galaxy the leading science fiction magazine of its time, focusing on stories about social issues rather than technology. Gold published many notable stories during his tenure, including Ray Bradbury's " The Fireman " expanded as Fahrenheit In , the magazine was acquired by its printer. By the late s, Frederik Pohl was helping Gold with most aspects of the magazine's production; when Gold's health worsened, Pohl took over as editor, starting at the end of , though he had been doing the majority of the production work for some time.
Pohl never won the annual Hugo Award for his stewardship of Galaxy, winning three Hugos instead for its sister magazine, If. Under Jakobsson the magazine declined in quality, it recovered under James Baen , who took over in mid, but when he left at the end of the deterioration resumed, there were financial problems—writers were not paid on time and the schedule became erratic. By the end of the s the gaps between issues were lengthening, the title was sold to Galileo publisher Vincent McCaffrey, who brought out only a single issue in A brief revival as a semi-professional magazine followed in , edited by H.
Gold's son, E. At its peak, Galaxy influenced the science fiction genre, it was regarded as one of the leading sf magazines from the start, its influence did not wane until Pohl's departure in Gold brought a "sophisticated intellectual subtlety" to magazine science fiction according to Pohl, who added that "after Galaxy it was impossible to go on being naive.
SF historian David Kyle agreed, commenting that "of all the editors in and out of the post-war scene, the most influential beyond any doubt was H. Kyle suggested that the new direction Gold set "inevitably" led to the experimental New Wave , the defining science fiction literary movement of the s; the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories , appeared in By the end of the s, the genre was flourishing in the United States , but World War II and its resulting paper shortages led to the demise of several magazines.
In the late s, the market began to recover.
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From a low of eight active US magazines in , the field expanded to 20 just four years later. Galaxy's appearance in was part of this boom. According to sf historian and critic Mike Ashley , its success was the main reason for a subsequent flood of new releases: 22 more science fiction magazines appeared by , when the market dipped again as a side effect of US Senate hearings into the putative connection between comic books and juvenile delinquency. Gold, Galaxy's first editor, had worked at Standard Magazines in the early s as an assistant editor, reading for Standard's three science fiction pulps: Startling Stories , Thrilling Wonder, Captain Future.
With the advent of the war, Gold left publishing and went into the army, but in late he was approached by Vera Cerutti, who had once worked for him. World Editions took a heavy loss on Fascination, its first attempt to launch a US magazine, Cerutti returned to Gold asking for recommendations for new titles. World Editions agreed, hired Gold as the editor, the first issue appeared in October The novel series subsequently appeared as Galaxy Science Fiction Novels. Gold suggested two titles for the magazine, If and Galaxy.
Heechee - Wikipedia
Gold's art director, Washington Irving van der Poel, mocked up multiple layouts and Gold invited hundreds of writers, editors and fans to view them and vote for their favorite. Along with an essay by Gold, Galaxy's premiere issue introduced a book review column by anthologist Groff Conklin , which ran until , a Willy Ley science column. Gold sought to implement high-quality printing techniques, though the quality of the available paper was insufficient for the full benefits to be seen.
Within months, the outbreak of the Korean War led to paper shortages that forced Gold to find a new printer, Robert M.
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The new paper was of lower quality, a disappointment to Gold. According to Gold, the magazine was profitable within five issues: an "incredible" achievement, in his words. Carbon Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds, it belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Three isotopes occur 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide , decaying with a half-life of about 5, years.
Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity. Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life, it is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass after oxygen.
The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon; the best known are graphite and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary with the allotropic form. For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper, while diamond is the hardest occurring material known. Graphite is a good electrical conductor.
Under normal conditions, carbon nanotubes, graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials.