In , Adobe published a Public Patent License to ISO granting royalty-free rights for all patents owned by Adobe that are necessary to make, use, sell, and distribute PDF compliant implementations. PDF 1. PostScript is a page description language run in an interpreter to generate an image, a process requiring many resources.
It can handle graphics and standard features of programming languages such as if and loop commands. PDF is largely based on PostScript but simplified to remove flow control features like these, while graphics commands such as lineto remain. The graphics commands that are output by the PostScript code are collected and tokenized. Any files, graphics, or fonts to which the document refers also are collected. Then, everything is compressed to a single file.
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Therefore, the entire PostScript world fonts, layout, measurements remains intact. Comments may contain 8-bit characters.
Objects may be either direct embedded in another object or indirect. Indirect objects are numbered with an object number and a generation number and defined between the obj and endobj keywords. An index table, also called the cross-reference table and marked with the xref keyword, follows the main body and gives the byte offset of each indirect object from the start of the file.
Beginning with PDF version 1. This technique reduces the size of files that have large numbers of small indirect objects and is especially useful for Tagged PDF. At the end of a PDF file is a trailer introduced with the trailer keyword. It contains. There are two layouts to the PDF files: non-linear not "optimized" and linear "optimized". Non-linear PDF files consume less disk space than their linear counterparts, though they are slower to access because portions of the data required to assemble pages of the document are scattered throughout the PDF file.
Linear PDF files also called "optimized" or "web optimized" PDF files are constructed in a manner that enables them to be read in a Web browser plugin without waiting for the entire file to download, since they are written to disk in a linear as in page order fashion. The basic design of how graphics are represented in PDF is very similar to that of PostScript, except for the use of transparency , which was added in PDF 1.
PDF graphics use a device-independent Cartesian coordinate system to describe the surface of a page. A PDF page description can use a matrix to scale , rotate , or skew graphical elements. A key concept in PDF is that of the graphics state , which is a collection of graphical parameters that may be changed, saved, and restored by a page description.
PDF has as of version 1. Paths can be stroked, filled, clipping. Strokes and fills can use any color set in the graphics state, including patterns. PDF supports several types of patterns. The simplest is the tiling pattern in which a piece of artwork is specified to be drawn repeatedly. This may be a colored tiling pattern , with the colors specified in the pattern object, or an uncolored tiling pattern , which defers color specification to the time the pattern is drawn.
Beginning with PDF 1. There are seven types of shading pattern of which the simplest are the axial shade Type 2 and radial shade Type 3. The dictionary describes properties of the image, and the stream contains the image data. Less commonly, a raster image may be embedded directly in a page description as an inline image. Images are typically filtered for compression purposes. Image filters supported in PDF include the general purpose filters. Normally all image content in a PDF is embedded in the file.
But PDF allows image data to be stored in external files by the use of external streams or Alternate Images. Text in PDF is represented by text elements in page content streams. A text element specifies that characters should be drawn at certain positions. The characters are specified using the encoding of a selected font resource.
A font object in PDF is a description of a digital typeface. It may either describe the characteristics of a typeface, or it may include an embedded font file.bedrikova.ru/images/121.php
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The latter case is called an embedded font while the former is called an unembedded font. The font files that may be embedded are based on widely used standard digital font formats: Type 1 and its compressed variant CFF , TrueType , and beginning with PDF 1. Fourteen typefaces, known as the standard 14 fonts , have a special significance in PDF documents:. These fonts are sometimes called the base fourteen fonts. Within text strings, characters are shown using character codes integers that map to glyphs in the current font using an encoding. There are a number of predefined encodings, including WinAnsi , MacRoman , and a large number of encodings for East Asian languages, and a font can have its own built-in encoding.
Although the WinAnsi and MacRoman encodings are derived from the historical properties of the Windows and Macintosh operating systems, fonts using these encodings work equally well on any platform. PDF can specify a predefined encoding to use, the font's built-in encoding or provide a lookup table of differences to a predefined or built-in encoding not recommended with TrueType fonts. For large fonts or fonts with non-standard glyphs, the special encodings Identity-H for horizontal writing and Identity-V for vertical are used. With such fonts it is necessary to provide a ToUnicode table if semantic information about the characters is to be preserved.
The original imaging model of PDF was, like PostScript's, opaque : each object drawn on the page completely replaced anything previously marked in the same location. In PDF 1. When transparency is used, new objects interact with previously marked objects to produce blending effects. The addition of transparency to PDF was done by means of new extensions that were designed to be ignored in products written to the PDF 1. As a result, files that use a small amount of transparency might view acceptably in older viewers, but files making extensive use of transparency could be viewed incorrectly in an older viewer without warning.
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The transparency extensions are based on the key concepts of transparency groups , blending modes , shape , and alpha. The model is closely aligned with the features of Adobe Illustrator version 9. The blend modes were based on those used by Adobe Photoshop at the time. When the PDF 1.
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