Drawing on myths and fairy tales, he creates characters who, like the heroic Roland the Gunslinger and the villainous Randall Flagg, may either reinforce or subvert the reader's childlike faith in society.
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And in the manner of the naturalist tradition, he reinforces a tension between the free will of the individual and the daunting hand of fate. Ultimately, Strengell shows how King shatters our illusions of safety and control: "King places his decent and basically good characters at the mercy of indifferent forces, survival depending on their moral strength and the responsibility they may take for their fellow men.
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Spring LC: PS p p. Although the Ramayana contains historical narrative, mythology, and folktales, it appears to be an original work by a single poet, and is traditionally attributed to the sage Valmiki. In contrast, the Mahabharata, the better known and much longer of the two, has a more complex provenance, which suggests a long period of evolution.
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The Mahabharata probably first took shape in the 9th century bce and only reached its final form in around the 4th century bce. The work is very long and comprises more than , verse couplets, known as shloka, divided into 18 books, or parvas. In addition to recounting the story of two warring families, it tells of their history, and that of India and the Hindu religion that is integral to it. At the outset, the narrator of the first book,. But what is not here, is nowhere else. Said to have lived in the 3rd millennium bce, Vyasa was an avatar incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu.
Vaisampayana explains how Vyasa dictated the entire story to the elephant-headed god Ganesha in a single sitting. This complicated nesting of frame narratives probably reflects the existence of different historical versions of the story before it took the shape we know today. It is also typical of the way in which the historical, mythological, and religious intertwine throughout the Mahabharata.
Although the central plot concerns the split in the ruling Bharata family of northern India, and the ensuing battle at Kurukshetra and its aftermath, the story is given a mythical dimension by the introduction of the character Krishna, another avatar of Vishnu. The scribe is elephant-headed god Ganesha.
After its explanatory preamble, the Mahabharata proper describes how the ruling clan of the Kuru becomes divided into two rival families, the Kaurava and the Pandava. These are the descendants of two princes, the blind Dhritarashtra and his. The enmity begins when Dhritarashtra is denied the throne because of his disability. Pandu becomes king instead, but a curse prevents him from fathering children. The gods, however, impregnate his wife and the line of Pandava seems safe.
But the sons of Dhritarashtra feel that they have a claim to the kingdom, and after Yudhishtira, the eldest Pandava, is crowned, they trick him into losing everything in a game of dice. In disgrace, the Pandavas are sent into exile. Some years later, the five Pandava brothers return to claim the throne, and so starts the series.
The second son of Pandu, Arjuna, goes into war with his cousin and close companion Krishna as his charioteer, but only reluctantly joins the fight after Krishna persuades him that it is his duty to fight for what is right. The war turns out to be a bloodbath, in which almost all the Kauravas are slaughtered; the few who survive take their revenge on the Pandava troops by murdering them in their sleep.
Only the five brothers survive the massacre, and they ensure the Kauravas are wiped out completely. Krishna, or at least this particular incarnation of Vishnu, is accidentally killed, and the Pandavas begin their long, dangerous journey to heaven.
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Only at the very end are the brothers reunited, and reconciled with their cousins the Kauravas, in the spiritual world. Dharma is a recurrent theme in the Mahabharata, both in terms of how this notion applies to each of us in every situation, and of how it is a difficult path to follow, because of human weaknesses and the. Dhritarashtra reaches out blindly for his wife Gandhari, who has bound her eyes to share his darkened world. Bad actions in a previous life meant his disability was a consequence of karma.
While most of the poem shows its characters dealing with moral dilemmas in their human affairs, in the final sections, and especially after the death of Krishna, we see. The story ends, after much tragedy and conflict, with the protagonists achieving eternal bliss, but also with the warning that the human struggles continue here on Earth.
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Such was its success that for several centuries only the Ramayana could rival its claim to be the great Sanskrit epic. While it cannot match the Mahabharata for sheer scope and excitement, the Ramayana is more consistent and elegantly poetic, and together the two inspired a school of Sanskrit epic poetry that flourished from the 1st to the 7th centuries ce. But his cousin and companion Krishna reminds him of his duty to fight this just war. The philosophical dialogue between them is described in the verse Bhagavad Gita, which has become an important Hindu scripture in its own right, explaining such concepts as dharma right conduct , karma intentions and outcomes , and moksha liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth.
When the Gods deal defeat to a person, they first take his mind away, so that he sees things wrongly. Epics were among the earliest forms of literature in many cultures around the world.
Epics usually contained many characters and genealogies, and were long and complex in structure. They were probably learned by rote in a repetitive poetic meter, or recited to a musical accompaniment, since it is far easier to memorize verse than prose. In ancient Greece many epic tales were told about the Trojan War— a conflict between the Achaeans.
The first and most famous of these accounts were the Iliad and Odyssey, both attributed to a single author, known as Homer. Historians concede that these epics were inspired by actual events— sporadic wars between Greece and Troy did occur some five centuries before the works were written— but their characters and plots are works of the imagination. The Greeks began to write down their epics around the 8th century bce.
Like the spoken tales on which they were based, they. Homer lived in a time before realistic portraiture.
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This bust is based on images of the writer that appeared only in the 2nd century bce. The two great ancient Greek epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, are traditionally ascribed to the poet Homer—yet little is known about him. Who is Homer—did he ever exist, and if so when? Was Homer. Did the author or authors of the work originate them, or simply make a written record of poems that had been passed down orally through the generations? Many scholars argue that the epics evolved from an oral tradition and were refined and embroidered upon by multiple poets in several versions.
Solid evidence is lacking and the Homeric question is yet to be answered definitively. Zeus remained largely neutral. These Greek epics have a regular meter—each line is comprised of six basic rhythmic units, and each of these units contains one long and two short syllables. The Iliad is a sophisticated piece of storytelling. It relates the tale of the war in Ilium Troy from the perspective of one character in particular—Achilles.
Parts of the story of the war are told in flashback, or in prophecies of the future.
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Woven into this plot are subplots and insights into the lives of the protagonists. How much of this complexity can be credited to Homer, and how much is a result of refinement and embroidering over previous generations, is impossible to tell. The result is a work that combines history, legend, and mythology, while offering the essential ingredients of good storytelling— adventure and human drama— that make it a compelling read. This is to drop the reader straight into the thick of the action,. Troy was believed for many years to be a mythical city.
Homer digresses to explain some of the background to the events he is describing, but he assumes much prior knowledge about the causes of the conflict, which contemporary readers would have known well. The roots of the Trojan War can be found in events that occurred at the wedding of the sea nymph Thetis to the Greek hero Peleus, who was a companion to the hero Hercules.
The celebrations were attended by may gods and godesses, including Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite.
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An argument broke out between the three goddesses, each of whom claimed to be the most beautiful. To resolve the dispute, Zeus asked Paris, the son of King Priam of Troy, to judge a beauty contest between them. Aphrodite offered Paris a bribe—the hand of Helen of Troy, the most beautiful woman in the world.
The subsequent abduction of Helen by Paris triggered the conflict. Anger is a predominant theme in the Iliad, manifested in the war itself and as a motivation for the actions of the individual characters. There is the righteous anger of Agamemnon and Menelaus over the kidnapping of Helen, but also the wrath that drives Achilles and makes him such a fearsome warrior, provoked again and again by events in the story. His anger is not directed solely at the Trojans, nor even restricted to human foes; at one point he is so enraged he fights the river god Xanthus.
Underlying the wrath of Achilles is a sense of honor and nobility which, like that of the Greek people, is offended by disrespect and injustice, but is sometimes directed. At the beginning of the Iliad, Achilles becomes enraged by King Agamemnon, the Greek commander, who has taken for himself Briseis—a woman who had been given to Achilles as a prize of war.